SymptomsAfter installing Synchronization Agent on a Windows XP machine, password synchronization does not work.
CauseThe installer of AD Sync Tool does not set up the DCOM permissions properly for Windows XP machines.
ResolutionManually adjust the security settings:
Run the Component Services console (dcomcnfg.exe)
Browse to Console Root>Component Services>Computers>My Computer and right-click on it to show the context menu.
Click on "Properties" and navigate to the "COM Security" tab in the property dialog.
Click "Edit Limits..." in the "Launch and Activation Permissions" group.
Locate the "Domain Controllers" group in the subject list (add it if it is not listed there).
Make sure all four actions are allowed in the permissions list.
Click OK to save the permissions.
Click OK to close the "My Computer" properties.
Close the Component Services console.
See the below screenshot with all of the described actions: